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Build-To-Rent Developers See Opportunity In Growing Renter Class

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Owning a detached, single-family house doesn’t quite have the appeal it once did. Still, millions of Americans want to live in detached residences, even if they don’t want to own them, and developers are stepping up to offer build-to-rent communities.

No single factor is driving demand for single-family rental housing, experts say. Partly, the large millennial demographic is looking for larger places to live but not always to buy, either because they can’t afford it or don’t want to be tied down. The coronavirus pandemic has also spurred new interest in single-family houses and the distance they provide.

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Courtesy of Christopher Todd Properties

Christopher Todd Communities at Stadium, a built-for-rent property of 300 houses in Glendale, Arizona.

Currently, about 6% of new single-family homes are developed specifically to be rented, according to RCLCO Real Estate Advisors Managing Director Todd LaRue. At that rate of development, about 700,000 new single-family housing units for rent will be developed over the next 10 years. 

“That isn’t going to be enough, considering the projected growth in demand for single-family rental units,” LaRue said. “That means that there will be a strong opportunity for developers of this kind of product in the coming decade.”

The United States is more a nation of renters than it used to be. Beginning with the Great Recession, the number of Americans owning their own homes has decreased. As of the third quarter of 2020, the Census Bureau reports, 67.4% of U.S. households owned, an uptick from the mid-2010s, but still well below the mid-2000s, when the rate nearly touched 70%.

Single-family rentals represent roughly 35% of all U.S. rented housing units, according to a 2018 study published by the National Bureau of Economic Research. That totals more than 12 million single-family rentals. Most of these rentals are still in the hands of small owners, many of whom rent out a single house, but corporate ownership of single-family housing has grown since the post-2008 housing crisis.

A study published by Curbed in 2018 found that about 200,000 single-family homes are owned by corporate investors such as Invitation Homes, American Homes 4 Rent, Progress Residential, Main Street Renewal and Tricon American Homes. They took the opportunity to buy properties that were foreclosed on in the early 2010s, the result of the dire economic straits so many people found themselves in.

As the economy improved — until the pandemic hit — these corporate buyers were less able to find houses to buy. But the idea of renting a detached house, even from a corporate entity, had become more established, especially among millennials.

“That generation is now advancing to a later life stage, where the family formation is taking hold, or just advancing beyond the age at which they want to live in standard apartments,” LaRue said.

At the same time, the economics of homeownership are often against them, faced with incomes and debt loads that don’t allow them to accumulate the necessary cash for down payments to enter the for-sale housing market in many places, LaRue said. Especially not detached, for-sale properties with yards.

But that isn’t the entire picture for single-family renters. Many renters at Christopher Todd Communities are perfectly able to buy a house, Christopher Todd Properties CEO Todd Wood said, but they prefer not to, at least for now. At the same time, they want to live in one.

“They saw what happened back in 2007, and they don’t want to be tied down to a 30-year mortgage,” Wood said. “They want to be mobile in their work environment, be able to get up and move. So from a millennial standpoint, a rental house that gives them space and amenities is an attractive solution. Besides, renting doesn’t have a negative stigma anymore.”

Then there is the matter of distance from one’s neighbors. Traditionally, that meant avoiding noise and other distractions. Currently, that means avoiding disease as well. The pandemic might end next year, but the appreciation of distance might not.

“We’re in a situation now where people are looking for less density,” NorthMarq President of Investment Sales Trevor Koskovich said. “They don’t want to use any kind of common areas, but they do want direct access from their parking spot to the front door without having to touch anything or see anyone. There’s an insatiable appetite in the market for that kind of space, and for-rent houses will help supply it.” 

For-rent housing development includes what might be called “horizontal apartments,” LaRue said. That means the unit sizes are very similar in size to traditional apartments, but they are slightly detached from one another or in the form of townhouses or duplexes. That kind of development has been around for many years.

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The up-and-coming developments are essentially communities of traditional, single-family detached houses, only built for rent rather than for sale. They often tend toward the luxury end of the spectrum, LaRue said, but not always, and typically compete with apartments by offering amenities.

“The question now is how much builders are willing to pivot to away from for-sale towards the rental product,” LaRue said.

Early indications are that some developers are willing to jump into the game. 

Phoenix-based Christopher Todd Properties develops for-rent, single-family housing communities in its home market, and then sells the communities in toto to investors. This year alone, the company has sold five Christopher Todd Communities in the greater Phoenix market totaling 943 houses. 

“Investor appetite for built to rent has ballooned recently,” Koskovich said. “Not only are we seeing demand from institutional investors, there is also interest from lenders to finance these kinds of deals.”

Recently, Koskovich brokered the sale of Christopher Todd Communities At Stadium, a 313-unit community of single-family houses in Phoenix. The property includes one- and two-bedroom detached houses with private backyards. 

Measuring a bit more than 1K SF, the two-bedroom houses rent for about $1,900. At that price point, they rent for more than most other multifamily properties in that part of greater Phoenix, though those tend to be smaller one-bedroom units. 

Single-family houses listed for rent in the neighborhood on Zillow tend to be a little larger — but in the same ballpark — as the Christopher Todd houses, though without many of the apartment-property style amenities, such as gated entry, a fitness center and a swimming pool.

“We’re fortunate in that when we compare ourselves to a classic multifamily properties, we’re usually able to get about 25% to 30% higher rent rates,” Wood said. “Also, our retention rates are almost 50% higher than traditional apartments.”

“Investors are seeing this type of asset as one that they can buy and hold, benefiting from their lower turnover and some operational efficiencies,” Koskovich said. “So there’s been demand for the properties, and I think that’s going to continue to grow in many markets going forward.”

Another major player in the single-family rental space is also a Phoenix operation, NexMetro Communities, which has developed 11 for-rent projects under the Avillia brand in its home market, along with properties in Tucson, Denver and Dallas-Fort Worth. This year, the company entered the Florida market for the first time, breaking ground on 152 houses on 13 acres in Odessa, which is in exurban Tampa.

“More consumers, including a growing number of baby boomers who have owned homes for many years, are choosing to rent rather than own a home,” NexMetro CEO Josh Hartmann said. “Demand for low-density rental housing is outpacing supply. Even as mortgage rates plunge, the demand for single-family rental home neighborhoods remains strong.”

NexMetro has long identified central Florida as a good location for its Avilla brand, Hartmann said, citing a strong local economy, including high rates of household formation, but also the availability of land. 

In June, El Paso, Texas-based Hunt Cos. formed a new division, Avanta Residential, to develop single-family rental communities. The company will work with investors, homebuilders and land developers to deliver single-family rental homes toward the more affordable end of the spectrum, though it hasn’t set rental rates yet.

“We’re seeing a real shift in the mindset about home rental and ownership,” Avanta Residential President Jim Dobbie said. “Particularly millennials seem to want the flexibility of renting, but with the privacy that typically comes with homeownership.”

Not everywhere is primed for for-rent single-family housing development, Koskovich said. 

“We’re not seeing too much of these kinds of developments in California, for example, with its impact fees and regulations,” he said. “Build for rent is going to happen in places where for-sale housing development is strong as well, such as Arizona and Texas. Places with strong local economies, developer-friendly governments and available land.” 

There has been sporadic pushback against rental developments as well, Koskovich said, though it isn’t pronounced in the markets where they would do well anyway.

“As the president of the MultiCultural Real Estate Alliance for Urban Change that promotes homeownership, we disapprove of the programs that encourage households to spend $2K to $3K or more a month to rent,” Los Angeles-based real estate broker Carmen Hill said.

“We encourage households to take the steps to overcome their obstacles,” Hill said. “Those include working with a credit counselor if they have bad credit or take advantage of education programs at the local community colleges if a better job is needed to qualify.”

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More accountability among council proposals for Akron police

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Akron City Council wants more resources for the city’s only independent police auditor and more public access to police records, from use of force reports to citizen complaints and logs that track the race of everyone stopped by police.

Those are among the recommendations to be released publicly on Monday by council’s special committee on Reimagining Public Safety. Members are trying to answer a community call for a police force that better reflects the demographics and lived experiences those it serves and protects following the police killing of George Floyd in Minnesota last year.

There would be no age limit for police cadets, which the city recently upped from 35 to 40 years. A new “Pathway to Law Enforcement” would ask community and education leaders to steer young adults into careers with the city and the Akron Police Department.

More so than they do now, social workers would help police handle 911 calls involving mental health and addiction. Officers would spend more time walking or biking their beats in an effort to build trust and understanding with the neighborhoods they police.

And council would keep up with the latest in law enforcement technology as city police deploy drones or consider feeding camera footage into crime-solving software that can scan faces and license plates, which would prompt leaders to weigh public safety against personal privacy.

Council President Margo Sommerville will present the full list of recommendations and special committee findings during council’s regular public meeting Monday. The 22-page document is the culmination of 22 subcommittee meetings, each averaging about an hour.

But the report is not the end of the road to “Reimagining Public Safety,” Sommerville explained. The end goal is “more equitable” policing systems and stronger bonds between police and the policed.

As he searches for a new police chief, Mayor Dan Horrigan and his deputy mayor for Public Safety, Charles Brown, express agreement with council in recognizing the best elements of policing in Akron while considering improvements outlined in the listed recommendations.

Next, Sommerville said council will take its newfound knowledge of policing in Akron to the public and rank-and-file officers.

University of Akron President Gary L. Miller said he’s honored and excited that council has asked his faculty and students to develop a community engagement process of surveys and virtual town hall meetings. The information gathering process will solicit feedback from residents, officers and the police union, which as an organization was not given an opportunity to address council’s special committee.

“We know at the end of the day, when we really begin to finalize these recommendations, we’re going to need the Fraternal Order of Police (Lodge #7),” Sommerville said, pinning successful implementation of any reform or enhancement on the commitment of everyone impacted.

FOP President Clay Cozart will see the recommendations Monday. While continuing to disagree with the prominence given to police reform in the wake of Floyd’s death, Cozart said he’s watched every minute of the 22 meetings discussing the work of his members, and he appreciates Sommerville’s willingness to work with the union.

Informed by Akron police officers serving as “liaisons,” the special committee involving every member of council broke out into four working groups.

Police oversight

The Accountability and Transparency group, which met seven times, delved into issues of external oversight, officer discipline and public access to records, drawing on the expertise of police auditors, civilian review board members and national experts on the subject from coast to coast.

Background: Who polices Akron police? Auditor says his office is understaffed, under-resourced

“In our society, we entrust police with the critical responsibility of protecting public safety, including by using force, if necessary,” the working group concluded. “External oversight recognizes that the seriousness of this delegated power requires particular scrutiny in order to ensure that the rights of the public are protected. On both a national and local level, historic injustices have created a trust deficit in how the public, particularly communities of color, interact with law enforcement, and government more broadly. Community trust is essential for effective policing.”

The group settled on two formal recommendations:

  1. Give Akron Police Auditor Phil Young, who answers to the mayor, a role codified in city law with “sufficient authority to access information, adequate staffing and funding and independence from the political process.”
  2. Ensure “that more police data and information is made publicly-available online and updated on a regular basis.”

Prevention

The prevention working group discussed community policing and best practices around responding to mental health, addiction and other 911 calls that can end tragically for officers and citizens.

While identifying funding as the greatest barrier to more robust training, the group recommended that every officer undergo Crisis Intervention Team training. Currently, 76% of officers lack the 40-hour training.

More: Akron’s police chief to retire in 2021

To “help solidify stronger relationships between police officers and the communities they diligently patrol and serve,” the group also recommended more walking and biking for beat cops, something previous councils and mayors have tried to achieve.

The final recommendation recommended a shifting, or at least sharing, of the burden of solving society’s problems, which armed officers encounter daily.

There’s some appetite for the concept, even among officers. Police1, an online source of information and resources for law enforcement, surveyed 4,000 American officers for a special report called “What Cops Want in 2021.” Officers named serving their community as the top reason for becoming officers. They also ranked the types of 911 calls they’d rather see other agencies handle: housing for homeless people (93%), animal control (88%), nuisance abatement (64%), parking enforcement (61%) and dispute mediation (53%), responding to mental health crises (45%) and drug overdoses (29%).

“Throughout our working group meetings, there was a continuing discussion of whether it may be appropriate for social service agencies to respond to some 911 calls relating to mental health or other issues, the idea being that a social service-focused approach might be more effective in some cases, and could also free up APD to focus on issues that clearly need a police response,” the group concluded. “Our APD liaisons made clear that they believe there should be a police response to all calls, as situations are fluid and could endanger non-police responders.”

We also heard from the Police Chief in Alexandria, Kentucky, a small city south of Cincinnati, who described a program in which the department employs two social workers, who follow up on calls (and in some cases respond to calls where the scene is deemed safe).”

The group heard from a Kentucky police chief who sends social workers out on many calls, sometimes without an armed officer. They said Akron, as a community, should involve more social service providers on 911 calls, when “appropriate,” and expand programs where counselors and health professionals follow-up after the fact.

Personnel and culture

A third committee tackled hiring and staffing as commanders must take officers from their patrols to fill specialized units like Neighborhood Response Teams — the backbone of community policing in Akron — or Quick Response Teams that respond to overdoses.

The group recommended more ongoing training and identified potential problems with hiring like not testing for steroids in the screening process because it costs twice as much or disqualifying applicants because they have or lie about a history of bad credit or minor drug offenses.

Background: Akron police force struggles to reflect city’s diversity

To get a more diverse and broader pool of candidates, the group recommended abolishing the current 40-year maximum age for cadets, as other large cities have done.

They also recommended bringing back an Akron Urban League program that prepared candidates for the city’s civil service exam and the creation of a Pathway to Law Enforcement program.

The Pathway program would use neighborhood “figureheads” and public educators to recruit 18 year olds and hold their interest in becoming cops until they turn 21 and are allowed by state law to carry a firearm as a civil servant. For a couple years, they would get city jobs dealing with the public while earning criminal justice credentials through UA or Stark State.

The group added two suggestions: APD should update its mission statement “to include the need for a workforce that reflects community and the need for diversity” and bring in an outside group that would take confidential and “unvarnished opinions” of officers “that could provide constructive feedback for further institutional change.”

Technology and equipment

No formal recommendations, aside from getting a body-worn camera for every officer who interacts with the public, came out of the technology and equipment committee.

More: Akron is ‘Reimagining Public Safety’ with drones, diversity and license plate readers

This last group learned about policing gadgets and systems like unmanned aerial vehicles (drones), “less-lethal” weapons (tear gas, pepper spray, tasers) surplus military rifles and body-worn cameras.

City information technologists informed them of existing software that allows detectives to stake out drug houses or solve crimes by accessing 277 cameras mounted around the city on buildings, lights and traffic poles. The footage is recorded 24/7 and kept for 21 days. And they discussed emergent technology like Briefcam, a program of computer algorithms that scans faces and reads license plates then automatically generates turn-by-turn video of stolen cars or suspects.

“Going forward, it will be important to gauge public opinion about how cameras in public spaces should be used,” the committee cautioned. “With Ring doorbells and other consumer camera systems becoming ubiquitous, it may be that the public is willing to accept greater surveillance by police within public spaces. Still, there should be transparency and clear rules on what is and is not permitted.”

Reach reporter Doug Livingston at dlivingston@thebeaconjournal.co or 330-719-1756

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Everything You Need To Know About Financing A Car In 2021

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Thinking about financing a car? Depending on your job and where you live, owning a car may be the easiest way to get around. But reliable vehicles can be expensive, which is where car financing comes in.

We’ve reviewed several of the best auto loan providers and researched everything you need to know about the car financing process. This article summarizes the most important information into an easy-to-understand guide to help you find your best auto financing options.

We’ll explain why you would finance a car, how car financing typically works, tips for finding the lowest interest rates, and recommend top lenders to get you started. Read on to learn everything you need to know about financing a car in 2021, and click below to start comparing rates from multiple lenders at AutoCreditExpress.com.

 

In this article:

Is Financing A Car A Good Idea?

If you have the cash to purchase a new car without a loan, take this approach. Unless your annual percentage rate (APR) is zero percent (which is rare), it is cheaper in the long run to purchase a car with cash. Of course, this is not practical or possible for many people. If you need a vehicle soon and don’t have the money saved up, financing may be the only way to purchase a car.

You should finance a car if:

  • You need a car and can’t afford to pay for the full value of the car in cash.
  • You want a car and can’t afford to pay the full value, but you can budget for the monthly expense of your payments.

You should not finance a car if:

  • You cannot afford monthly payments.
  • You can afford to pay for the full value of the car in cash.

 


 

How Does Car Financing Work?

Car financing is a type of loan. A lender will pay for a certain amount when you purchase the car, which you will be required to pay back, with interest, at a predetermined monthly rate. There are several important variables to any auto loan:

  • Purchase price
  • Fees
  • Down payment
  • APR
  • Financing term length

The purchase price is the final agreed-upon cost of the car. Typically, the purchase price is set by a dealer but can be negotiated. On top of this price, you will also be required to pay taxes and other fees depending on the state and dealership. Taken together, these represent the total cost of the car.

Most auto loans do not pay for the entire cost of your vehicle. A typical down payment is 20 percent of the car’s total cost. The higher your down payment, the lower the amount you need to finance. The more you can pay as a down payment, the better, as you will be charged interest on the remaining amount.

APR represents the amount of interest you will pay. In the United States, there is no standard for how APR must be calculated for auto loans. This means that depending on how often the interest is compounded, the same APR for the same loan amount can result in a different total interest paid. For this reason, it is difficult to compare offers between lenders based solely on advertised APR.

Luckily, many car financing offers will clearly state your monthly payment amount. If you multiply this number by the number of installments you will pay, you can determine the total price you will pay. If you subtract this total amount from the amount that you financed, you can figure out exactly how much you will pay in interest.

For example, imagine the total cost of the car you purchase is $20,000. You place a 20-percent down payment of $4,000. This means you take out an auto loan of $16,000 to pay the remainder. If your contract requires you to pay $250 per month for 4 years, you will end up paying a total of $20,000 to your lender. This is $4,000 more than the amount you financed – $16,000 – and represents your total financing fee (how much extra you had to pay in order to get a loan).

Beware of dealerships that advertise zero percent APR. Typically, when a dealer advertises this rate, it may give you no interest on your loan but tack on other fees that increase the total amount you must pay back. For example, rather than saying you must pay $16,000 plus 4 percent APR, the dealership will add a “service fee” on top of the sticker price so that the amount you must pay back is much higher, even though your debt does not accumulate interest.

If your loan contract does not clearly indicate the total amount you will need to pay back, do not sign it. Only agree to an auto loan you fully understand. If you have trouble understanding your loan terms, you aren’t alone. Many loans are intentionally confusing so that the customer has a more difficult time realizing if they are being scammed. Consider enlisting the help of a friend or even a loan professional to review your contract’s terms and conditions before signing.

Your financing term is the length of time it will take for you to pay off your auto loan, assuming that you meet all monthly payment obligations. The longer your finance term, the more you will ultimately pay. This is because the longer your loan remains unpaid, the longer you will accumulate interest. Try to pay off your loan as quickly as possible.

 


 

How To Get Car Financing

Along with deciding on a vehicle and determining your budget, you’ll need to choose where to get your auto loan from. There are several places to request car financing from, and each has its benefits and downsides:

Option For Financing A CarHow It Works
Dealership financingMost dealerships offer vehicle financing, typically through third-party lending partners. This is the most convenient option, as you can compare multiple offers at the dealership and see if there are any special rates for certain vehicles. However, be aware that dealer loans may include high fees.
Bank financingWhile it may be more of a hassle to visit a separate location from where you will buy your car, local banks and credit unions can help work within your budget, won’t pressure you to buy, and will likely offer some of the best terms. Credit unions in particular are likely to be less predatory.
Online lender financingThe easiest way to browse financing offers is online. Many online lenders partner with dealerships so that you can prequalify for a loan and shop for eligible vehicles on the same website. However, there are a lot of online auto lenders out there, so you’ll need to look for one that’s credible.
 

 


 

Tips For Financing A Car

When you are financing a car, there are several best practices to keep in mind to get the lowest rates:

  • Decide how much you can pay beforehand: Before even deciding which car to buy, determine how much you can afford to finance. Think about what monthly payment you can comfortably pay, and work backward from there. Cars depreciate in value, so you can quickly find yourself in debt if you take out a loan you can’t afford. After a few years, is not uncommon for the value of a car to be less than the amount you owe on your loan.
  • Check your credit score: Interest rates are largely based on your credit score. You are entitled to a free copy of your own credit report at least once a year. You can request this at AnnualCreditReport.com and other websites. If you have a poor credit score, you might need a bad credit auto loan. One way to get a better APR if you have a low credit score is to have a cosigner with good credit.
  • Reduce finance charges: Your goal should be to lower the total amount you will pay on top of the cost of your vehicle. This means looking for a low APR and a short payment term. Also, try to reduce the amount you must finance by making as large a down payment as possible. Twenty percent is standard for a down payment, but if you can afford to pay more upfront, you will pay less later.
  • Compare offers: It’s a good idea to compare auto loan offers before you visit the dealership. When doing so, be sure to only request loan offers from lenders that offer pre-qualification that does not include a hard credit check. Hard credit checks lower your credit score, so do not agree to one unless you are ready to finalize a loan offer.

 


 

Recommended Lenders

When financing a car, it can be difficult to know which lenders are credible. To help you sift through the hundreds of choices available, we’ve narrowed down the best loan providers in the industry.

Read on to learn more about some of our top picks, or read our full review of the best auto loans for a longer list of recommended lenders. If you’re ready to start comparing loan offers right away, you can do so via AutoCreditExpress.com.

 

PenFed Credit Union offers some of the lowest auto loan rates we have seen. However, it has stricter credit score requirements than other lenders and may not be an option for some. The company is well-regarded and has a positive reputation online.

PenFed Credit Union ProsPenFed Credit Union Cons
Offers exceptionally low interest ratesModerate customer service reputation
A+ rating from the Better Business Bureau (BBB)Does not offer loans to drivers with poor credit
 Customer reviews describe a slow application process
 

Auto Credit Express is a good choice for those with bad credit. Even if you are undergoing bankruptcy or repossession, Auto Credit Express will work with you. Plus, Auto Credit Express will help you build your credit score if it is low.

Auto Credit Express ProsAuto Credit Express Cons
Offers financing for customers with bad or no creditCurrently has a BBB alert regarding licensing issues
Pairs customers with loans based on credit profilePoor customer reviews
Offers special rates for military members 
 

To learn more about this provider, read our full Auto Credit Express review.

myAutoloan.com is not a direct lender but a portal that connects lenders with customers. It’s a good way to browse loan offers and even find loans for private purchases.

myAutoloan.com ProsmyAutoloan.com Cons
Offers loans for drivers with bad credit historyNot available in Alaska and Hawaii
Offers loans for private purchasesNot available to drivers with credit scores below 575
Good customer service reputation and an A+ rating from the BBB 
 

To learn more, read our full myAutoloan.com review.

 


 

Alternatives To Financing A Car

If you need a vehicle but do not want to take out an auto financing loan, you have a few alternatives.

  • Lease: If you lease a car, you will pay a monthly fee that is likely to be lower than an auto loan payment. However, at the end of the lease term, you must return the vehicle and will be charged for excess damages. Some lease contracts have the option to buy the vehicle at the end of the lease.
  • Private loan: You might ask for a loan from an individual rather than a loan provider. An individual that you know may loan you money at a much better rate than auto lenders (or with no interest at all).
  • Cash payment: If you can avoid making a monthly car payment, it’s the best route to go. Cash payments are the cheapest way to purchase a vehicle in the long run, but most people do not have the funds to take advantage of this option.

 


 

Frequently Asked Questions

What happens if I miss a car payment?

If you think you are going to miss a car payment, contact your lender right away. You may be able to request an extension or have your contract terms changed. If you are able to negotiate any changes, be sure to get them in writing. If you miss too many car payments, your vehicle can be repossessed.

How long should you finance a car?

You should try to finance your car for as short a time as possible. A typical auto loan term is five to six years. Longer auto loans are not recommended because the value of your car may depreciate below the amount you have left in payments.

Can you finance any car?

Which cars you can finance depends on the lender. Many lenders will not provide auto loans unless you buy your car from a dealership, but this is not always the case. A lender will not provide a loan for an especially expensive car if the borrower has a poor credit score or low income. Likewise, if the value of the car is too low, a lender may not offer an auto loan and you’ll need to look into personal loan options.

Which bank is best for car financing?

There is not a single best bank for car financing, though we generally recommend Chase and Capital One – which are generally good banks for auto loans. Typically, a local bank or credit union is your best bet for auto financing.

What credit score do you need to get zero percent financing on a car?

Few lenders offer zero percent financing on auto loans. To be eligible for this interest rate, you would likely need a credit score above 720, as well as a stable income. Most of the time, if a dealership advertises zero percent APR, you will end up paying more in hidden fees.

Is a 72-month car loan bad?

While 72 months is long for a car loan, it’s not uncommon. If you can, try to sign up for an auto loan that does not exceed 60 months (5 years).

What car dealerships are offering zero percent financing?

Few car dealerships offer zero percent financing. Some dealerships advertise “0 percent APR,” but this is usually just a way to get people in the door and doesn’t always equal saving money on your purchase. Rather than charge an interest rate, the final contract may include additional fees that are not legally considered “finance charges.” This has been a common practice among U.S. automakers since the 1980s.

 

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Recent Faculty Publications | Yale School of Management

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A roundup of faculty publications since July 2020.

Lorenzo Caliendo

  • Lorenzo Caliendo, Giordano Mion, Luca D. Opromolla, Esteban Rossi-Hansberg. “Productivity and Organization in Portuguese Firms”.  Journal of Political Economy, (2020) 128(11).

 
Kerwin Charles

  • Kerwin Charles, D. Mark Anderson, Ryan Brown, Daniel I. Rees. “Occupational Licensing and Maternal Health: Evidence from Early Midwifery Laws and Maternal Mortality”. Journal of Political Economy, November 2020, Vol. (128) (11). 

 
Judith Chevalier

 
Julia DiBenigno

  • Satterstrom, P., Kerrissey, M., and DiBenigno, J. 2020. “The Voice Cultivation Process: How Team Members Can Help Upward Voice Live on to Implementation”. Administrative Science Quarterly.

 
Raphael Duguay

  • Duguay, R., Minnis, M., & Sutherland, A. (2020). “Regulatory spillovers in common audit markets”. Management Science, 66(8), 3389-3411.

 
William English

  • English, William, Liang, Nellie J. (2020). “Designing the Main Street Lending Program: Challenges and Options”. Journal of Financial Crises 2.

 
Soheil Ghili

  • Klibanoff, Peter, Ghili, Soheil i. (2020). “If it is surely better, do it more? Implications for preferences under ambiguity”.  Management Science.

 
Paul Goldsmith-Pinkham

 
Edward Kaplan

 
Bryan Kelly

  • B. Kelly, B. Herskovic, H. Lustig,S. Van Nieuwerburgh. “Firm Volatility in Granular Networks”. Journal of Political Economy. Dec 2020.

 
Sang Kim

 
Balazs Kovacs

  • Jerker Denrell, Balazs Kovacs (2020) “The Ecology of Management Concepts”. Strategy Science 5(4):293–310.
  • Balazs Kovacs, Glenn R. Carroll, and David W. Lehman (2020) “Grading in Restaurant Hygiene Inspections: The Effects of Social Ties with Inspectors”. Food Policy 97:101960-101971.

 
 Barry Nalebuff

  • Nalebuff, Barry. (June 10, 2020). “A Perspective-Invariant Approach to Nash Bargaining”. Management Science. 
  • Doria, Matthew, Nalebuff, Barry* (September 2020). “Measuring competitive balance in sports”. Journal of Quantitative Analysis in Sport.
  • Adam Brandenburger, Barry Nalebuff. “The Rules of Co-opetition”. Harvard Business Review. Publication Date: January 01, 2021

 
Kosuke Uetake

 
 Edward Watts

 
Amy Wrzesniewski

  • Sangal, R. B., Wrzesniewski, A., DiBenigno, J., Reid, E., Ulrich, A., Liebhardt, B., Bray, A., Yang, E., Eun, E., Venkatesh, A. K., & King, M. (2020). “Work team identification associated with less stress and burnout among front-line emergency department staff amid the COVID-19 pandemic”. BMJ Leader.

 
Tauhid Zaman

  • Nicolas Guenon des Mesnards, David Scott Hunter; Zakaria el Hjouji, Tauhid Zaman. “Detecting Bots and Assessing Their Impact in Social Networks” in Operations Research. 16 Dec 2020.

 
Gal Zauberman

  • Makov, Tamar, George E. Newman, and Gal Zauberman. (2020). “Inconsistent allocations of harms versus benefits may exacerbate environmental inequality”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science.  117 (16) 8820-8824
  • Berman, Jonathan Z., ⁠ Amit Bhattacharjee, Deborah A. Small, and Gal Zauberman. (2020). “Passing the buck to the wealthier: Reference-dependent standards of generosity”.  Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes. 157, 46–56.

 
Frank Zhang

  • Frank Zhang, Shuai Shao, Robert Stoumbos. “The power of firm fundamentals in explaining stock returns”. Review of Accounting Studies, Jan 7, 2021.

     

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